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Concrete Preparation Guide

 


This is the Concrete Surface Preparation Guide produced by Floorex and sets out the standards for what is the best method of concrete preparation to specify for all sorts of concrete coatings, overlays, screeds and even thick beds.

This is a guide only and different circumstances and substrate variables need to be taken into account.*

© Floorex Products 2016.

CSPGOL-Grinding-Action-Shot

Grinding Concrete

Diamond Grinders use horizontally rotating discs to level, smooth or clean the top surface of a concrete slab.

These machines often can be used to polish slabs from 50# through to 3000# to produce excellent flatness and high quality sheen.

Grinders usually can be fitted with many different types of tooling to level rough surfaces, remove sealers, paints, mastics or glues from concrete slabs.

Primarily designed to work the top surface of a floor over large areas, grinders can also be used effectively to level uneven joints or high spots of 1-3mm.

Grinders provide contractors a smoother finish than scarifiers or scabblers.

  • CSP Profiles
    • This preparation method produces a profile of CSP 2
  • Surface damage risk
    • This preparation method has a very low surface damage risk.
  • Coating Types this profile is good for
    • Sealers / Hardeners****
    • Seamless Coatings****
    • Roll-on / Spray-on Epoxies / Coatings****
    • Self Levelling Screeds***
    • Trowel-on epoxy / urethane screeds**
    • Cement Mortar Screeds / Beds**

Legend

  • Excellent****
  • Good***
  • Poor**
  • Not Recommended*
  • CSPGOL-ShotBlasting-Action-Shot

    ShotBlasting

    Shot Blasting is a one-step surface preparation technique that removes, cleans and profiles the surface in a single operation.

    It can effectively remove laitance, paint, old coatings, dirt and other contaminants that are in or on concrete. This process will prepare new concrete or steel for coating applications and will enhance and improve the bond for any type of coating system.

    Shot Blasting is a dust-free method of surface abrasion in which thousands of steel shot particles are propelled at the surface removing the top layer and contaminants and rebound back into the system to be recycled. The steel shot profiles the surface, while contaminants are removed by the dust collection recovery system.

    Fine (S280-330) Shot is recommended for most coatings preparation.

    • CSP Profiles
      • This preparation method produces profiles of CSP 3 - 7
    • Surface damage risk
      • This preparation method has a very low surface damage risk.
    • Coating Types this profile is good for
      • Sealers / Hardeners**
      • Seamless Coatings***
      • Roll-on / Spray-on Epoxies / Coatings****
      • Self Levelling Screeds****
      • Trowel-on epoxy / urethane screeds****
      • Cement Mortar Screeds/Beds****

    Legend

  • Excellent****
  • Good***
  • Poor**
  • Not Recommended*
  • CSPGOL-Scabbling-Action-Shot

    Scabbling

    Scabblers use compressed air to hammer piston mounted bits onto the concrete surface.

    They tend to roughen the concrete surface more than grinding or scarifying.

    A ChipDeck Scabbler can remove up to 6mm of concrete surface in a single pass.

    A typical removal rate for a machine with a 12 inch working width is 20 to 25 square metres per hour at 3 to 6mm depth.

    • CSP Profiles
      • This preparation method produces profiles of CSP 8 - 9
    • Surface damage risk
      • This preparation method has a very high surface damage risk.
    • Coating Types this profile is good for
      • Sealers / Hardeners*
      • Seamless Coatings*
      • Roll-on / Spray-on Epoxies / Coatings*
      • Self Levelling Screeds*
      • Trowel-on epoxy / urethane screeds*
      • Cement Mortar Screeds/Beds***

    Legend

  • Excellent****
  • Good***
  • Poor**
  • Not Recommended*
  • CSPGOL-FloorScraping-Action-Shot

    FloorScraping

    Floor Scrapers can range from small push-type, to heavier push-type such as the Beaver™ 250, to self-propelled such as Beaver™ 300 (pictured) and heavy ride-on machines Lightning & Twister.

    Air Powered Chisel Scalers are hand tools that use a rapid hammering action that would ordinarily require manual scrapers.

    For larger projects, Propane (Gas) powered ride-on scrapers are used for high productivity and rapid removal of tiles, wood, parquetry carpets and glues.

    Electric or Battery Powered Scrapers also are options

    • CSP Profiles
      • Floor Scraping Requires another method of preparation
    • Surface damage risk
      • This preparation method has a very low surface damage risk.
    • Coating Types this profile is good for
      • Sealers / Hardeners*
      • Seamless Coatings*
      • Roll-on / Spray-on Epoxies / Coatings*
      • Self Levelling Screeds*
      • Trowel-on epoxy / urethane screeds*
      • Cement Mortar Screeds/Beds*

    Legend

  • Excellent****
  • Good***
  • Poor**
  • Not Recommended*
  • CSPGOL-Scarifying-Action-Shot

    Scarifying

    Scarifers fling or impact multiple number of flails, or cutters onto the concrete surface.

    Tungsten or hardened steel flails strike the surface leaving a clean, roughened or textured surface.

    Scarifers are also referred to as planers, milling machines, rotary cutters or simply surface-preparation machines.

    Scarifers allow you to control the depth of the cut more precisely than with scabblers. These versatile machines have various styles of interchangeable cutter assemblies that can be used for cleaning, scarifying and light or heavy milling and also grooving.

    Production rates range from 35 to 150 square metres per hour (dependant on machine size and horsepower).

    • CSP Profiles
      • This preparation method produces profiles of CSP 6 - 9
    • Surface damage risk
      • This preparation method has a Medium to High surface damage risk.
    • Coating Types this profile is good for
      • Sealers / Hardeners*
      • Seamless Coatings*
      • Roll-on / Spray-on Epoxies / Coatings**
      • Self Levelling Screeds***
      • Trowel-on epoxy / urethane screeds****
      • Cement Mortar Screeds/Beds****

    Legend

  • Excellent****
  • Good***
  • Poor**
  • Not Recommended*
  • CSPGOL-Scarifying-Action-Shot

    Bushammering

    Bushammers set of 3 or more rollers with tungsten teeth around them which roll across the surface breaking the top layer up.

    Bushammers are designed to remove or loosen coatings and membranes and also work well to create a nonslip surface on concrete and other hard surfaces, even Bluestone

    Bushammers can also be used to get down into the surface of hard concrete to assist in exposing the aggregate

    Bushammers are often mounted on surface grinding machine and therfore follow the surface undulations more than a traditional scarifier will.

    They are also excellent in removing paint lines on bitumen and concrete.

    • CSP Profiles
      • This preparation method produces profiles of CSP 3 - 6
    • Surface damage risk
      • This preparation method has a Medium surface damage risk.
    • Coating Types this profile is good for
      • Sealers / Hardeners*
      • Seamless Coatings*
      • Roll-on / Spray-on Epoxies / Coatings**
      • Self Levelling Screeds***
      • Trowel-on epoxy / urethane screeds****
      • Cement Mortar Screeds/Beds****

    Legend

  • Excellent****
  • Good***
  • Poor**
  • Not Recommended*
  • CSP1 CSP2 CSP3
    CSP4 CSP5 CSP6
    CSP7 CSP8 CSP9

    This question is answered by understanding the importance of the substrate not sustaining damage that reduces the integrity of the surface that a coating, screed or membrane/ overlay is bonded to.

    Some mechanical methods impact the surface so hard that micro-cracking of the substrate occurs with the risk that the coating is bonded to chunks of concrete that can pull out. When the coating is removed there are chunks of concrete stuck to the coating or floor covering.

    Flame blasting is also likely to cause deep micro-cracking due to the thermal stress.


    What Is Laitance?

    Laitance is the weak, milky layer of cement and sand fines that rise to the surface especially with over-wet concrete and mixes with bleed water, usually as a result of premature finishing or trowelling.

    Why remove Laitance?

    The life of a coating on a concrete floor is dependant on proper adhesion to the concrete. If a coating is applied directly to the laitance layer (which is inherently weak), floor traffic from trolleys, forklifts or other machinery will cause dis-bonding of the coating.

    By removing the laitance layer, coatings can firmly adhere to the concrete substrate giving longer service life


    * Floorex takes no responsibility for errors or consequential loss or damage from the use of the data herein

    The Web Version is constantly updated therefore you may notice some differences

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